New Possibilities In Colorectal Cancer Diagnosing: Application Of The Optical Methods For Studying Red Blood Cells And Blood Plasma

Margarita KRUCHININA, Federal State Budgetary of Scientific Institution “Institution of Internal and Preventive Medicine” , Russia
STARIKOV A. 1 , KURILOVICH S. 1 , GROMOV A. 1 , KRUCHININ V. 2 , RYHLITSKY S. 2 , VOLODIN V. 2,5 , GENERALOV V. 3 , PELTEC S. 4 , SHEHOVTSOV S. 4

1 Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Federal State Budgetary of Scientific Institution “Institution of Internal and Preventive Medicine”, Novosibirsk, Russia
2 Department of Ellipsometry, Rzhanov’s Institute of Semiconductor Physics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
3 Department of Biophysical Researches, The State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Koltsovo; Novosibirsk region, Russia
4 Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Institute of Cytology and Genetics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
5 Laboratory of optical methods for the study of nanostructured materials, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

The aim of this work was to assess the potential of the optical methods for studying erythrocytes (Er) and blood plasma (BP) for verification of colorectal cancer (CRC).
Methods: A total of 48 persons (50+9 years old) with CRC in T1-2 stage (20 patients) and in terminal stages T3-4 (28 patients) were examined. The controls consisted of 20 healthy people. Er parameters were investigated by terahertz spectroscopy (THzS), dielectrophoresis. The optical properties of BP were studied by ellipsometry, Raman, NMR spectroscopy. The reaction of the monoclonal antibodies with Tumor Type M2-Pyruvate Kinase (Tu M2-PK) in BP of CRC patients was studied by ProteOn XPR36 (BioRad).
Results: THzS revealed a more intensive lowering of amplitude transmission levels of Er suspensions at all frequencies in the range from the controls to T3-4 (p<0,001-0,05), which correlated with low capacitance (r=0,76, p<0,02), Er membrane dipole moment (r=0,62, p<0,01), low Er deformability (r=0,71, p<0,001). The increasing the refractive index in combination with a reduction in BP film thickness as weighting CRC stage has been established (p<0,01-0,05). Using 1HNMR analysis, chemometrics, a differentiation pattern was obtained between the metabolites in the  plasma of  CRC patients and normal (p<0,0001).The main pathways were bile acid, vitamin B6 biosynthesis, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies. The areas of peaks (1005-1520 cm-1) in Raman spectra were significantly lower in patients with CRC compared with healthy ones (p<0,001-0,04), correlating with the stage of the process (r =-0,85, p<0,001) and effectiveness of anti-tumor therapy (r=0,92, p<0,01). Tu M2-PK plasma levels in CRC terminal stages was above significantly than those in the T1-2(p<0,0001-0,02), correlating with the presence of metastases (r=0,76,p<0,01), treatment efficiency (r=-0,82,p<0,012). Specificity of method, obtained in the analysis of the controls, was 93%.
Conclusion. Optical methods for studying Er and blood plasma should be considered as promising for colorectal cancer diagnosing.